Human - Computer Decision Making Lab

Dramatic increases in the use of automation have occurred across society in recent years. The underlying assumption in providing automated decision aids to human operators is that the human-computer team will be more productive than either the human or the automated aid would be working alone. Some researchers have found support for this underlying assumption (Corcoran, Dennett, & Carpenter, 1972; Dalal & Kasper, 1994; Parasuraman, 1987; Thackray & Touchstone, 1989). However, other researchers have found that human operators do not appropriately rely on automated decision aids. Depending on the situation, humans underutilize (disuse) or overly rely on (misuse) automated decision aids (cf. Parasuraman & Riley, 1997).

Through the support of the Army Research Laboratory and a matching grant from the Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology, we created a model outlining the processes leading to automation use. We are currently testing the model.

Powerpoint Presentation
This power-point presentation was given at the Army Research Laboratory headquarters in Aberdeen, MD in April of 2006. It provides a summary of some of the work we have done in this area.


Relevant Publications

Dzindolet, M. T., Beck, H. P., & Pierce, L. G. (2006). Adaptive automation: Building flexibility into human-machine systems. In E. Salas, S. Burke, & L. Pierce (Eds.) Advances in Human Factors and Cognitive Engineering, Vol 6, Boston: Elsevier Press.

Beck, H. Dzindolet, M. T., & Pierce, L. G. (2005). Taking the advice of a decision aid: I'd rather be wrong. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Dzindolet, M. T., Peterson, S. A., Pomranky, R. A., Pierce, L. G., & Beck, H. P. (2003). The role of trust in automation reliance. International Journal of Human Computer Studies: Special Issue on Trust and Technology, 58, 697-718.

Dzindolet, M., Pierce, L., Peterson, S., Purcell, L., & Beck, H. (2002). The influence of feedback on automation use, misuse, and disuse. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 46th Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Beck, H. P., Dzindolet, M. T., & Pierce, L. G. (2002). Applying a decision-making model to understand misuse, disuse, and appropriate automation use. In E. Salas, C. A. Bower, N. Cooke, J. Driskell, & D. Stone (Eds.) Advances in Human Factors and Cognitive Engineering, Vol 2, Boston: JAI Press.

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Beck, H. P., & Dawe, L. A. (2002). The perceived utility of human and automated aids in a visual detection task. Human Factors, 44, 79-94.

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Pomranky, R. A., Peterson, S. A., & Beck, H. P. (2001). Automation reliance on a combat identification system. In the Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 45th Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Pomranky, R. A., Dzindolet, M. T., & Peterson, S. A. (2001). Violations of expectations: A study of automation use. In Proceedings of the 2001 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. Washington, DC: Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (C2RTS).

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Beck, H. P., Dawe, L. A., & Anderson, B. W. (2001). Predicting misuse and disuse of combat identification systems. Military Psychology, 13(3), 147-164.

Dzindolet, M. T., Beck, H. P., Pierce, L. G., & Dawe, L. A. (2001). A framework of automation use (Rep. No. ARL-TR-2412). Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Army Research Laboratory.

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Dawe, L. A., Peterson, S., & Beck, H. P. (2000). Building trust in automation. In Proceedings of the Human Performance, Situational Awareness and Automation: User-Centered Design for the New Millennium, Savannah, Georgia: SA Technologies Inc.

Dzindolet, M. T., Beck, H. P., & Pierce, L. G. (2000). Encouraging human operators to appropriately rely on automated decision aids. In Proceedings of the 2000 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. Washington, DC: Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (C2RTS).

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Beck, H. P., Dawe, L. A., & Anderson, B. W. (2000). Misuse of an automated decision making system. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Human Interaction with Complex Systems (pp. 81-85). Urbana, Illinois: Human Interaction with Complex Systems (HICS).

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Beck, H. P., & Dawe, L. A. (1999). Misuse and disuse of automated aids. In Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 43rd Annual Meeting (pp. 339 - 343). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Relevant Publications
Stewart, J. (April, 2006). Reliance on Decision Aids over Time. Paper presented at the 24th Annual Oklahoma Psychological Society Spring Research Conference, Edmond, Oklahoma. (Mentor: Mary Dzindolet)

Ross, Rachael, DeSorrento, E., Fields, C., Gohl, A., Batka, J., Stewart, J., & Dzindolet, M. T., Beck, H., & Pierce, L. G. (March, 2006). Exploring Trust in Human and Automated Aids. Poster presentation at Research Day at the Capital, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

DeSorrento, E., Field, C., Gohl, A., Batka, J., Beadles, E., & Dzindolet, M. (October,
2004). Exploring the relationship between trust and reliance in human-automated teams. Poster presented at Oklahoma Research Day, Edmond, OK.

McKinney, J. B., Beck, H. P., Dzindolet, M. T., Gilkey, J., & Kyes, L. (2004, May). Operators disregard advice from an error-free decision aid. Poster presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Chicago, IL.

Beadles, E., Batka, J., Dzindolet, M., & Beck, H. (2004, April). Reliance on a Perfect Automated Decision Aid. Poster presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Oklahoma Psychological Society, Edmond, OK.

Beck, H. P., Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Reeves, R., Jones, J., & Gilkey, J. (2004, March). Automated decision aids: Our partners and rivals. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Atlanta, GA.

Clark, P., Shields, J., Dzindolet, M., & Beck, H. (2003, November). Inappropriate use of an automated decision aid. Poster session presented at Research Day for Oklahoma's Regional Universities, Edmond, Oklahoma.

Clark, P., Shields, J., Dzindolet, M., & Beck, H. (2003, November). Reliance on an imperfect automated decision aid. Paper presented at the 92th annual technical meeting of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, Chickasha, OK.

Beck, H. P., Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., & Piatt, N. (2003, October). Looking forward: A simulation of decision aids in tomorrow's classroom. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Denver, CO.

McKinney, J. B., Beck, H. P., Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., & Littlejohn, T. (2003, August). Feedback and scenario training enhance effectiveness of automated decision aids. Poster presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., & Beck, H. (2003, May). Understanding the Human-Computer Team. Paper presented at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Critical Design Issues for the Human-Machine Interface, Prague, Czech Republic.

Batka, J., Beatles, E., & Dzindolet, M. T. (2003, March). Automation Reliance with a Perfect Automated Aid. Poster presented at the Llano Estacado Undergraduate Psychology Research Conference, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas.

Beck, J. P., Araujo, G., Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Piatt, N. K., & Chilton, D. (2003, March). Thanks for nothing: An automated decision aid impairs test performance. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Purcell, L., Dzindolet, M. T., Batka, J., Young, T., Dailey, L., Rosa-Ramirez, I., Pierce, L., Peterson, S., & Beck, H. (2002, April). Appropriate reliance on an automated decision aid. Poster session presented at the 20th annual Oklahoma Psychological Society Spring Research Conference, Edmond, Oklahoma.

Beck, H. P., Dzindolet, M. T., & Pierce, L. (2002, March). Two procedures for promoting the rational use of computerized decision aids. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association. THIS PAPER PRESENTATION WON THE “OUTSTANDING PAPER AWARD

Young, T., Dzindolet, M. T., Purcell, L., & Beck, H. (2001, November). Effect of feedback on automation reliance. Poster session presented at Research Day for Oklahoma's Regional Universities, Edmond, Oklahoma.

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L., & Beck, H. (2001, November). Understanding automation reliance. Paper presented at the 90th annual technical meeting of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, Lawton, OK.

Faculty mentor for McNair Scholar: Young, T. (2001, November). The effect of feedback on automation reliance. Paper presented at the 90th annual technical meeting of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, Lawton, OK.

Pierce, L. G., & Dzindolet, M. T. (2001, June). The human dimension in army digitization. Presentation to the Committee on Human Factors, National Research Council, The National Academies, Washington, D.C.

Pomranky, R., Dzindolet, M., & Peterson, S. (2001, April). Violations of expectations: A case study of automation use. Paper presented at the 19th annual Oklahoma Psychological Society Spring Research Conference, Edmond, Oklahoma. THIS PAPER WAS AWARDED 2TH PLACE IN THE GRADUATE PAPER COMPETITION

Beck, H. P., Dzindolet, M. T., & Pierce, L. G. (2001, March). Decision aids: Interventions that promote their rational use. Poster session presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Atlanta, GA.

Barnes, M. J., Pierce, L. G., Wickens, C. D., Dzindolet, M. T., & Rozenblit, J. W. (2000, December). Human performance issues in battlefield visualization. Paper presented at the 22nd Army Science Conference, Baltimore, MD. THIS PAPER WAS SELECTED AS BEST IN ITS TECHNICAL SESSION

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Dawe, L. A., Peterson, S., & Beck, H. P. (2000, October). Building trust in automation. Paper presented at the Human Performance, Situational Awareness and Automation: User-Centered Design for the New Millennium: The Fourth Annual Technology and Human Performance Conference and the Third Conference on Situation Awareness in Complex Systems, Savannah, Georgia.

Pomranky, R. A., Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Beck, H. P., & Peterson, S. A. (2000, October). To aid or not to aid? An examination of overreliance on automation. Poster session presented at Research Day for Oklahoma's Regional Universities, Edmond, Oklahoma.

Dzindolet, M. T., Pomranky, R. A., Pierce, L. G., & Beck, H. P. (2000, October). Tell me why and I will appropriately rely. Poster session presented at Research Day for Oklahoma's Regional Universities, Edmond, Oklahoma.

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Beck, H. P., & Dawe, L. A. (2000, August). Trustbusting in automation use. Poster session presented at the joint meeting of the International Ergonomics Association and Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, San Diego, California.

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Beck, H. P., Dawe, L. A., & Anderson. B. W. (2000, May). Misuse of an automated decision making system. Paper presented at Human Interaction with Complex Systems 2000, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois.

Beck, H. P., Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Poole, A. H., & McDowell, L R. (2000, April). Feedback mitigates bias against machines with decision-making capabilities. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Beck, H. P., Dawe, L. A., & Anderson. B. W. (2000, April). Misuse of an automated decision-making system. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Society, Dallas, Texas.

Beck, H. P., Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Poole, A. H., & McDowell, L. R. (2000, March). Feedback mitigates bias against machines with decision making capabilities. Poster presentation at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Beck, H. P., Dawe, L. A., Grounds, C., & Stansbury, J. (1999, October). Automation bias or human reliance? Poster session presented at Research Day: Celebrating Discovery and Education in Oklahoma’s Regional Universities, Edmond, Oklahoma.

Pomranky, R. A., Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. A., Beck, H. P., Dawe, L. A., & Anderson, B. W. (1999, October). Friend or foe? Misuse and disuse of an automated system. Poster session presented at Research Day: Celebrating Discovery and Education in Oklahoma's Regional Universities, Edmond, Oklahoma.

Stansbury, J. A., Dzindolet, M. T., Grounds, C., Pierce, L. G., Beck, H. P., & Dawe, L. A. (1999, October). Bias toward self-reliance affects automation use. Poster session presented at Research Day: Celebrating Discovery and Education in Oklahoma's Regional Universities, Edmond, Oklahoma.

Dzindolet, M. T., Pierce, L. G., Beck, H. P., & Dawe, L. A. (1999, June). Misuse and disuse of automated decision aids. Paper presented at Nagshead: Groups, Networks, Organizations, Highland Beach, Florida.

Dzindolet, M. T., Beck, H., Pierce, L. G., & Dawe, L. A. (1999, June). Bias towards automation leads to underutilization of automated aids. Poster session presented at the 11th annual meeting of the American Psychological Society, Denver, Colorado.

Hawkins, J. L., Dzindolet, M. T., & Beck, H. P. (1999, March). Bias against machines with decision making capabilities. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Savannah, Georgia.

Dzindolet, M. T., Beck, H., Pierce, L. G., & Dawe, L. A. (1998, October). Human decision making in an automated environment. Poster session presented at the 42nd annual meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Chicago, Illinois.