Dr. Loree Gaines
Help Sessions

        Digestive System

  1.  Name three accessory digestive organs:

  2.  T or F  Most of absorption occurs in the stomach.

  3.  What are the four basic layers of tissues found throughout the digestive tract?

  4.  Place each layer of tissue in the correct sequence from superficial to deep:

            ____  muscularis                          ____  mucosa

             ____  serosa / adventitia               ____  submucosa

  5.  Be able to distinguish between parietal and visceral peritoneum.


        1.  ____  mesentery                        a.  lesser curvature of stomach

and duodenum

        2.  ____  mesocolon                       b.  secures small intestine to

posterior wall

        3.  ____  falciform ligament             c.  fatty apron draped over

intestines from stomach

        4.  ____  greater omentum               d.  secures large intestine to

posterior wall

        5.  ____  lesser omentum                 e.  secures the liver to

diaphragm and anterior wall

  6.  Name the three pairs of salivary glands.

  7.  Teeth. Know the parts of each tooth and how each tooth is held in place.

  8.  There are ____ of deciduous teeth and ____ permanent teeth. Thus a 14 year old child should 
      have ____ deciduous teeth and ____ permanent teeth.

  9.  What is meant by the dentition formula of “2-1-2-3”?

10.  Esophagus.

            the first 1/3 is __________ muscle

            the second 1/3 is __________ muscle

            the last 1/3 is __________ muscle

11.  Peristalsis is (voluntary / involuntary) rhythmic contractions of (smooth / skeletal) muscle.

12.  Trace a particle of food from the mouth to and through the anus.  Include all portions of the GI
       Tract (minus the accessory organs) and flexures of the large intestine/colon.

13.  Name three functions of the stomach.

14.  Rank in order of length (longest to shortest) the three portions of the small intestine.

15.  List in order the three portions of the small intestine as food passes through the small intestine.

16.  Be able to draw and explain the difference between villi, microvilli, and lacteals.

17.  The _________________ valve (sphincter) prevents backflow from the large to small intestine.


        1. _____ Pancreas                           a.  primary metabolic factory

        2. _____ Liver                                b.  stores and concentrates the bile

        3. _____ Gall Bladder                     c.  produces digestive juices

18.  The pancreas is connected to the _______________ of the small intestine by 2 ducts.

19.  The __________ produces insulin in clusters of cells called _________________________.

20.  Pancreatic juices are produced in the __________ of the pancreas and make up _____ % of
       the cells of the pancreas.

21.  The __________ produces bile. (Which cells of this organ produce bile?)

22.  The __________ stores bile.

23.  What is the functional unit of the liver?

24.  Draw and label the Biliary-Pancreatic duct system (FIG 24.12).

25.  The right and left hepatic ducts unite to form the common __________ duct. This duct then
       joins the __________ duct from the gall bladder to form the common __________ duct. The
       __________ duct joins with the common bile duct forming the ____________________
       ampulla which enters the duodenum at the major _______________ papilla through the
       sphincter of ______.  Meanwhile the __________ duct (of the pancreas) enters the duodenum
       (superiorly / inferiorly) to the hepatopancreatic amuplla.

26.  The large intestine is (longer / shorter) and has a (greater / lesser) diameter  than the small

27.  Name the four regions of the large intestine, including the flexures in the order fluid passes
       through, ending with the anus.

28.  The internal anal sphincter is made of (smooth / skeletal) muscle. The external anal sphincter is
       made of (smooth / skeletal) muscle.

29.  Know the type(s) of cells in each part of the digestive system.  (Don't forget he likes histology)

NOTE:  On any True or False question that is False, know why the question is False and what would
             make it a True answer.

Don't forget to do the self-quiz at the end of chapter 24 on pages 755-756.