CHEM 1364 Test 3 Spring 1998
1. 'Light' is just one small part of the ____________________ spectrum.
2. The ____________________ of light is the distance between two successive peaks of the light wave.
3. The ____________________ was explained by Einstein when he proposed that light was made up of particle-like energy packets called photons.
4. A(n) ____________________ state in an atom occurs when an electron is promoted to a temporary higher energy state.
5. The electrons in (5) often emit light. These spectra are called ____________ spectra, and occur because of the quantization of energy states around the atom.
6. Electrons, being the smallest form of matter commonly encountered, exhibit the principle of ____________________ duality which can be exploited to 'see' details of structures not commonly visible with light.
7. ____________________ gave us the Uncertainty Principle, which states that we cannot know both the position and momentum of any bit of matter - but most importantly electrons.
8. The ____________________ numbers for orbitals were limiting factors in the Schrodinger wave equation - but for us these numbers serve as the 'address' for each individual electron around an atom.
9. The shapes of the orbital are determined by the ____________________ quantum number, and become more complex as this value increases.
10. The ____________________ quantum number will describe an individual orbital that will hold at most two electrons.
11. ____________________ orbitals are those that have the same energy.
12. ____________________ electrons are those that are 'accessible', and consist of those electrons in the outermost shell plus any electrons in a partially filled inner shell.
13. ____________________ species have the same electronic structure.
14. ____________________ is the energy required for the reaction X + e- X-.
15. ____________________ are those elements for which the properties are somewhere between metals and non-metals.
16. (15) The energy of a mole of X-rays has been determined to be 1.68 x 109 J. Calculate a) the energy of a single photon of this X-ray; b) the frequency and c) the wavelength of this light.
17. (15) Calculate the energy of a photon and the wavelength of the light emitted when an electron falls from the n = 6 to the n = 3 energy level in hydrogen.
18. (15) Give the 'shorthand' electronic configuration [1s2 2s2 ...] for the following species. [NOTE: You may use the 'Noble Gas' shortcut.]
S, Pd, Ca2+, P3-, Pb4+
19. (15) Rank the following groups of atoms in order of increasing atomic size.
a) P, Mg, Cl, O
b) Cs, I, Sn, Te
c) Ca2+, Rb+, Br-, Te2-
20. (10) Explain the following apparent anomalies:
a) The electronic configuration of gold is [Xe} 6s1 4f14 5d10
b) The first ionization energy of sulfur is less than the first ionization energy of phosphorous.
c) Carbon is smaller than boron.
EXTRA CREDIT (10) What was your favorite April Fools joke this year - both a) performed and b) had done to you.
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