History 4403 - Spring 2012
Europe's Enlightenments, 1648-1789

Room: South Shepler 623
Section 24308: TTh, 2-3:15 p.m.

Instructor: Douglas Catterall

Office: 634 South Shepler Tower
Office Hours: TTh, 11A-12P, 3:30-4:30P; W, 9A-12P, 2-3:15P; F 8:30-10:15A
work telephone: 581-2949
e-mail: dougc@cameron.edu

Goals and Approach:
The purpose of this course is to introduce you to events and changes bearing on the religious, social, and cultural complexion of Europe that unfolded in the17th and 18th centuries and had important roots in the 16th century. Traditionally historians think of this time span as encompassing the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Absolutism, but our focus will chiefly be on the Enlightenment and its precursors in the Scientific Revolution in France, the British Isles, German-speaking Europe, and the Dutch Republic. However one decides to name it, the ideas that took root in Europe in this period are still very much with us today, and not just in so-called Western society.  Here are some of them: freedom of the press; freedom of expression; secularism; atheism; equality between peoples, classes, and genders; representative democracy; evolution; cultural relativism; separation of church and state; Romanticism. . . I will stop here as the list is long indeed.

As you might imagine, with so many ideas floating about, historians have had a difficult time deciding what the Enlightenment, at its heart, was. While we will not come up with any definitive answers this term, we will try to look at the merits of seeing the Enlightenment from several perspectives. We will look at those who created and promoted the Enlightenment's chief ideas (though not all of them), which is the approach of the intellectual historian. Among the thinkers we will encounter are Kant, Hume, Rousseau, and Diderot, but also earlier thinkers who are precursors of the Enlightenment such as Francis Bacon or Hugo Grotius. Another level at which we will look at the Enlightenment involves looking at the people who were involved with the ideas of the Enlightenment but were not among its most famous exponents.  Most of these people came from the professional and commercial classes.  The great mass of Europe's population will also come under scrutiny.  I hope too that we will be able to see the Enlightenment not just as a collection of important but "dead" ideas but rather as a living attitude of mind.

In this course we will strive to grapple with all of the many facets of the Enlightenment with an eye towards gaining a greater understanding not only of the European past but also of ourselves and the society in which we currently live. As I place a particular emphasis both on written and oral expression, it is also my hope that you will each improve your abilities in these areas as well.

Specific Objectives of the Course:

This course will provide you with opportunities to improve in the following three areas of intellectual endeavor:

Specific Objectives:

II. Source Analysis
Graduates will demonstrate the ability to analyze historical texts for meaning

III. Expository Argumentation
Graduates will demonstrate the ability to construct and defend a sustained and coherent argument based on both primary and secondary sources.

IV. Synthetic Writing
Graduates will demonstrate the ability to identify, organize, and assess conflicting interpretations and views of past events and issues with the historical profession.

Texts and Other Aids

Major Secondary Works:
David Garrioch, The Making of Revolutionary Paris (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002); ISBN: 978-0-820-24327-9

Margaret C. Jacob, The Enlightenment: A Brief History with Documents (New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2001); ISBN: 978-0-213-17997-7

Anne Goldgar, Tulipmania: Money, Honor and Knowledge in the Dutch Golden Age (Reprint; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008); ISBN: 978-0-226-30126-6

Deborah E. Harkness, The Jewel House: Elizabethan London and the Scientific Revolution (New Haven, CT: The Yale University Press, 2008): ISBN: 879-0-300-14316-4

Primary Sources and Related Readings:

Key Excerpts from: The Endeavour Journal of Sir Joseph Banks, 1768-1771 online in Australian Digital Collections of the University of Sydney at: http://purl.library.usyd.edu.au/setis/id/p00021

Rousseau's Political Writings: Discourse on Inequality, Discourse on Political Economy, On Social Contract (Norton Critical Editions), translated by Julia Conway Bondanella and edited by Alan Ritter (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1987); ISBN: 978-0-393-95651-1

Additional source hand-outs and readings as needed

All of the above readings will be required for the course. They are all, apart from the supplementary materials listed under "Additional source hand-outs,"available at the CU Bookstore, although I do not require that you buy them there.  When necessary I will supplement these readings with short source readings, usually taken from online or paper resources in the public domain; if at all possible I will make these supplements available to you at no cost to yourselves.

Requirements: Course work consists of three elements: participation, which consists of several elements; formal writings; and an essay-based final examination.

Participation (150 points):
a. Discussion (84 points possible): This is an upper division course run largely as a seminar.  Participation in discussion is therefore mandatory and your grade will suffer if you do not participate.  You can earn up to 3 points for each day you come to class apart from the review day for the final, depending on your contributions to class discussion and classroom activities.  No credit will be extended for partially attended classes.

b. Working Papers (60 points possible):  To focus our dicussions and your reading I will assign three short writing exercises (Working Papers), each of which will be worth 20 points and be 2 typed, doubled-spaced pages in length, written in Times Roman, 12-pt. font and must be properly footnoted (see me before starting an assignment if any of these standards are unclear).  The emphasis will vary from paper to paper.  Often I will be asking you to write up a brief analysis of the main point of a section or sections of the reading in question.  In other words, I won't want just a summary, but an actual discussion of what's going on in the piece.  Other papers may require something slightly different.

c. Reading Quiz (30 points possible): There will be one reading quiz based on Margaret Jacob's The Enlightenment.  You have two attempts at the quiz at the beginning of the term (a pre-test) and two attempts at the end of term (a post-test).  The average of the high scores of the pre- and post-test will be taken.

d. Credit for Participation: A perfect score in participation is 150 points.  Thus you need a minimum of 135 for an A, at leasts 120 for a B, at least 105 for a C, and 90 points for a D.  Anything less than that is an F.

Reaction Papers (450 points): You will have to write three focused essay/reaction papers on the five major non-textbook readings books assigned for the course.  Each paper has a value of 150 points and is to be 5-6 typed, double-spaced pages in length.  Papers are to be typed in Times Roman font with a 12-pt. pitch and must be appropriately footnoted (please see me before writing a paper if you have questions about these standards).  Due dates for the papers are listed below. General guidelines, including my expectations for a paper, are to be found by clicking on the hypertext in this sentence. Specific guidelines for the papers will be provided in this syllabus in a timely manner.  To find them look for the due dates below in the course assignment and reading schedule where you will find the paper title in hypertext; by clicking this hypertext you will arrive at the specific instructions for the paper.

Final Examination (150 points): There will be a comprehensive, essay-based final examination.

Grading Breakdown:

Course Component
Component Point Value
Reaction Papers
Final Examination 150
Total of All Categories 750

Calculation of your mark: In this course 750 points is a perfect score.  Thus an A requires a minimum of 675 points, a B at least 600 points, a C at least 525 points, a D at least 450 points.  Anyone earning less than 450 points fails the course and earns a mark of F.  PLEASE NOTE: I WILL NOT DISCUSS MARKS WITH STUDENTS ONCE REGULAR CLASSES HAVE ENDED UNTIL GRADES HAVE BEEN SUBMITTED.

General Policies:

Classroom Environment: Talking to your classmates or others outside the context of classroom activities is rude and will not be tolerated.  Reading outside materials, listening to music, taking telephone calls on your cell-phone, and similar non-class related activities are equally unacceptable.  I expect all students to be respectful of one another's right to speak and express opinions.  Disagreements and different viewpoints are welcome, but debates should not involve insults.  Finally, food and drink are permitted in class as long as courtesy is observed; e.g. if you haven't quite finished your cup of coffee, do bring it along to class, but turning the classroom into a cafeteria is not permissible.  

Attendance: As noted above, regular attendance is crucial to your success in this class.  If you miss class regularly, your grade will suffer.  I would also like to note that frequent lateness in coming to class and frequent early departures will also be penalized as these habits are rude to your fellow classmates and to me as the instructor.  I will take attendance daily in this class and an absence is an absence and will be counted as such.  

Preparation: All assignments for a given day, whether reading or writing, are to be completed before the class meets on that day.  I also recommend that you take notes as you read and during lectures and discussions as this will make studying for the reading quiz and final examination as well as writing the papers for the class less of a challenge.

E-mail: Communication will often occur via e-mail, which I will send you through Blackboard.  Since Blackboard uses your Cameron University e-mail account, this means that you must check your Cameron University e-mail account to participate in this course.  If you don't know how to access your CU e-mail account, please see the common syllabus attachment or the intructions below. If these instructions there are insufficient, I will be happy to help you with all this if need be. But remember, I will assume that you know how to access and use your e-mail and if you do not make use of your CU e-mail account you will certainly miss out on some crucial information this term and it will be more difficult to do well.

For those not aware of the basics of accessing student e-mail please read the following: "Student email accounts and other services may be found at http://studentmail.cameron.edu The User Name Construction link provides information about user names and passwords. Students should check their Cameron email regularly regardless of whether or not they have other email accounts. A student who wishes to be contacted at an address other than Cameron email should be sure to keep a current preferred address on record in MyCU."

Late Formal Writings/Papers: The following policy applies to all late papers for this course that will receive a letter grade. All papers submitted at any time on the day that the paper is due will be considered on time. Papers submitted after that date, no matter what the reason may be, will be automatically marked down one grade. You will then have seven days from the original due date to turn in the paper. If in that time you are unable to complete the work, the paper will receive a zero.

Late Working Papers: No late working papers will be accepted, so don't ask. Remember, though, that your participation grade is a composite of your performance in class and your marks on informal writings and I have designed the grading system to allow you a "head start".  Thus, as long as you manage to achieve the necessary points for participation, it will not matter to me how you do so. Although I will obviously keep track of what you do by way of participation.  I would advise you to remain aware of where you stand so that you know whether or not you are achieving what you wish in this important component of the course mark.

Missed Quizzes and Examinations: Make-ups for the reading quiz and the final examination are granted to the student at the instructor's discretion and only with a legitimate (e.g. a medical emergency) and documented reason.  

Administrative Withdrawal: If your participation or your academic performance in the course indicate that you are likely to fail the course, the instructor may request that you be administratively withdrawn from the course.

Academic Dishonesty: The following statement encapsulates university policy on academic misconduct: "Each student is expected to engage in all academic pursuits in a manner that is above reproach.  Students are expected to maintain complete honesty and integrity in the academic experiences both in and out of the classroom. Any student found guilty of academic dishonesty¦ will be subject to disciplinary action."  Additional information is provided in the Cameron University Code of Student Conduct at: http://www.cameron.edu/student_development/student_conduct

Among the most serious offenses a student can commit is plagiarism, which is the representation of the work of another as your own. In all of the writing you do for this course you must make clear to me which ideas in a paper are your own and which come from someone else. This is especially important for any formal essays you write. In such essays you must cite all primary and secondary sources you use in accordance with the proper conventions.  Instructions on the basics of citation may be found under the general guidelines for papers and can and should be consulted before any formal essays come due.  If for some reason you do not choose to examine this page, know that you will not be exempt from following its guidelines.  In cases of plagiarism, the Department of History and Government at CU follows the policy for academic dishonesty in the CU Code of Student Conduct.  Penalties for plagiarism as defined by the Student Code of Conduct include:

a. The student may be required to perform additional academic work/project not required
of other students in the course;
b. The student may be required to withdraw from the course with a grade of “W” or “F”;
c. The student’s grade in the course or on the examination or other academic work affected
by the dishonesty may be reduced to any extent, including a reduction to failure.

Please heed this warning as I am quite serious about it.

Disability Statement:
As per the Office of Student Development, "It is the policy of Cameron University to accommodate students with disabilities, pursuant to federal and state law.  Students with disabilities who need classroom accommodations must make their requests by contacting the Office of Student Development at (580) 581-2209, North Shepler Room 314."

Website for this office:


Schedule of Readings, Weekly Topics, Assignments and Activities

Week 1

(1/10) Introduction and Course Overview

Overview 1: The Precursors to the Enlightenment

(1/12) The Political and Intellectual Background to the Enlightenment: Jacob, The Enlightenment, 1-15, 27-43: Study Questions ; Study Questions

Week 2

Overview 2: The Emergence of the "Public" in 18th-Century Europe

(1/17) The Intellectual Background to the Enlightenment and the Birth of the Public Sphere in European Societies: Jacob, The Enlightenment, 15-27, 73-114, 137-156
 Study Questions

Overview 3: The Enlightenment: A French Movement?

(1/19) Anglophilia and Other Matters: Jacobs, The Enlightenment, 46-50, 114-137: Study Questions

Week 3

Overview 4: The Enlightenment as an Atlantic Movement?

(1/24) Travel as Science & Enlightenment as Reform: Jacob, The Enlightenment, 43-46, 50-72, 160-176: Study Questions; Study Questions; Study Questions

The Social History of the Scientific Revolution British Style

(1/26) The Jewel House, 1-56 

Week 4

(1/31) The Jewel House, 57-96.
Window for
Foundational Knowledge Quiz online  opens @ 12:00 a.m.

(2/2) The Jewel House, 97-141

Week 5

(2/7) The Jewel House, 142-210.
Window for Foundational Knowledge Quiz online  closes @ 11:59 p.m.

(2/9) The Jewel House, 211-260.

Week 6

The Dutch Republic in the Later 17th Century: An Early Enlightenment Society?

(2/14) The Dutch Republic: Cradle of the First Enlightenment?: Tulipmania, 1-19.
Examine: The Memory of the Netherlands

(2/16) Tulipmania, 20-61.
Turn In: Formal Writing #1

Week 7

(2/21) Tulipmania, 62-130.

(2/23) Tulipmania, 131-193.

Week 8

(2/28) Tulipmania, 194-252.

(3/1) Tulipmania, 253-325. 

Week 9

Living in an Enlightenment City: Paris during the 18th Century

(3/6) Who Lived in Paris and Where?: Garrioch, 1-44.
Working Paper #1 (In Class Writing)

(3/8) Who Lived in Paris and Where?: Garrioch, 45-111.

Week 10

The Enlightenment Judges Humanity

(3/13) Social Protest in the City of Light: Garrioch, 115-160.
Turn In: Formal Writing #2.

(3/15) Paris's Enlightenment Culture 1: Garrioch, 163-236.
Turn In: Working Paper #2

Week 11

No Class This Week, Spring Break. Have a Great Break!!!

Week 12

(3/27) Paris's Enlightenment Culture 2: Garrioch, 237-319.

(3/29) Inequality 1: Rousseau's Political Writings,3-34.

Week 13

(4/3) Inequality 2: Rousseau's Political Writings,34-57.

The Enlightenment and Politics

(4/5) Rousseau on the State and Society 1: Rousseau's Political Writings, 84-98.

Week 14

(4/10) Rousseau on the State and Society 2: Rousseau's Political Writings, 98-118.
Turn In: Formal Writing #3

(4/12) Rousseau on the State and Society 3: Rousseau's Political Writings, 118-148.
Turn In: Working Paper #3.

Week 15

(4/17) Rousseau on the State and Society 3: Rousseau's Political Writings, 118-148.

The Enlightenment Abroad

(4/19) Rousseau on the State and Society 4: Rousseau's Political Writings, 148-173.

Week 16

(4/24) Excerpts from: The Endeavour Journal of Sir Joseph Banks, 1768-1771.

(4/26) Review
Turn In: Formal Writing #4.

(4/29) Last Day to Take Reading Quiz!!!

Final Exam Week

(5/1) Final Examination, 12:30 -2:30 p.m.

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