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Chemistry 3314 Laboratory

                                                     Lab Schedule and Grading Policy Spring 2008


You are to organize yourselves (today) into companies of three, select a company name (Due today) and logo (due next week) to be used on advertisements and formal lab reports.  Your company should be organized and begin functioning the first laboratory period.  Set up a job rotation schedule, and assign each of the following jobs to one of your members.  The four jobs are CEO, CFO, Flunky-1, and Flunky-2.   The CEOs responsibilities are to become so familiar with the experimental procedure and necessary experimental conditions that s(he) can answer questions, make decisions, and generally direct the laboratory activities of the rest of the company.  The CFO job is to tabulate all time spent working in the lab by members of the company, compile cost analysis sheets, take minutes of company meetings, and with the President=s approval sell the product to ideally make money.  The job(s) of  Flunky-1and Flunky-2 is much less defined.  Initially it is to take directions and work.  Later in the semester it will become their job to take melting points, do final recrystallizations and take spectra.   Each member is to be placed in each position at least two times.


These companies will be awarded a small business grant of $5,000 from the government (me). Your company should strive to make money using these funds or at least to break even by the end of the semester.   It is not the purpose of this form of laboratory to force or even encourage you to spend more time in lab than is scheduled.  Rather the goal is to enhance your efficiency during lab (i.e. you get out on time, have a better understanding, etc.), promote leadership abilities, enhance group dynamics, and to have fun.  Your Lab grade will be determined by your collective income (profit margin) (20 %) , your individual work hours (10 %), and your performance on quizzes and  prelabs (10 %), lab sheets (30 %), lab safety record (10 %), lab final (10 %), and the write-up of your self determined synthesis (10 %).  Please note that there is at least one day for a company meeting after we get started.  Lab grades will be recorded as a straight % of 100 % and count 20 % of your course grade.  Your Special write-up is to be a computer generated WordPerfect™ or Word™ document in the format of AOrganic Syntheses@ and you must include structural drawings that you do on the computer.  All companies will be compared to each other and points given for profit margin relative to the highest,  the highest profit receiving 100% possible.  Your individual work hours will be graded based upon your attendance in lab and team cooperation.


Special Synthesis ‑ The objective of the special synthesis is to find a product which you can prepare economically (consideration of chemicals required and amount of manpower consumed.) in the assigned laboratory time.  Always check your procedure with the instructor before performing it in the laboratory.  You will be graded not only on your yield, profit, and technique but also on the degree of difficulty of the synthesis. 


All chemicals used will be Apurchased@ at the price determined by the instructor.  These will be real prices from our main supplier but will be recalculated to a per gram price or a per mL price.  The CFO will Asell@ your product back at any Ahighest@ price that s(he) can find. (The sole criterion for price is everyone must have the opportunity to find/use the price.  That means it must be available to be found, not that you are to tell everyone where to find it.  The CFO must reference and list the price used (attach a computer hard copy if off the web) and then record that price as the cost per g or cost per mL.  The CFO will submit a report showing all labor, labor cost, chemical costs, environmental fines and OSHA fines on the form supplied.  For a start there are catalogs in tutorial that you may search for the highest possible selling price.  It is to your advantage to not disclose your research, but you may not use any source that is not available to the rest of the class.   You will basically pay only for the main chemicals used and add 20 % for the remainder of the chemicals such as solvents, etc.  You will be allowed to Ascale-up@ the experiment by multiplying your yield and chemical costs by 100 without increasing your labor costs.  You will be generally required to run the preparation on the scale described in your lab book unless you are using all starting materials that you made.   For sequential reactions you are to sell intermediate products at high prices and repurchase them at lower prices. 




                                                                 Lab Schedule (Turn in copy)

Day One - Jan 15 - Check out.  You may pick your personal lab partners.    We=ll group your threesome at check out for proximity.  Your responsibility is to organize your company with a name selection (Prior to leaving lab), and to assign responsibilities for job assignments for all lab days (not counting this first day), and turn in these assignments.  By the next lab day you should meet as a company to develop a ACompany Logo@ and to plan your first experiment.  It is recommended that you set up a weekly meeting to plan, search for selling prices, and to notify each other of upcoming problems needing resolution.


Company Name ______________________________________________


Lab Day 2 -Jan 22                                                                                                     President ______________            CFO________________

Exp 22 Oxidation of Cyclohexanol                                                                         Flunky-1 ______________            Flunky-2_____________


Lab Day 3 -Jan 29                                                                                                     President ______________            CFO________________

Exp 28 Nitration of Methyl Benzoate                                                                     Flunky-1 ______________     Flunky-2_____________       


Lab Day 4 - Feb 5                                                                                                      President ______________            CFO________________

Exp 38 Syn. of triphenylmethanol                                                                            Flunky-1 ______________             Flunky-2_____________       


Lab Day 5 -Feb 12                                                                                                     President ______________            CFO________________

Exp 32 Synthesis of Anthraquinone                                                                        Flunky-1 ______________             Flunky-2_____________       



Lab Day 7 - Feb 20, 22                                                                                              President ______________            CFO________________

Exp 54 Benzoin Condensation                                                                                 Flunky-1 ______________             Flunky-2_____________       


Lab Day 8 -Feb 26                                                                                                     President ______________            CFO________________

Exp 55-I Benzil from Benzoin                                                                                  Flunky-1 ______________             Flunky-2_____________       


Lab Day 9 -Mar 4                                                                                                       President ______________            CFO________________

Exp 55-2 Benzil quinoxaline                                                                                    Flunky-1 ______________        Flunky-2_____________       


Lab Day 10- Mar 11                                                                                                   President ______________            CFO________________

Exp 56 Reduction of benzil                                                                                       Flunky-1 ______________        Flunky-2_____________       


Lab Day 11 - Mar 25                                                                                                  President ______________            CFO________________

To be assigned later                                                                                                  Flunky-1 ______________        Flunky-2_____________       


Lab Day 12- April 1                                                                                                    President ______________            CFO________________

Special Synthesis I                                                                                                    Flunky-1 ______________        Flunky-2_____________       


Lab Day 13- April 8                                                                                                     President ______________            CFO________________

Special Synthesis I                                                                                                     Flunky-1 ______________        Flunky-2_____________       


Lab Day 14 - April 15                                                                                                  President ______________            CFO________________

Special Synthesis I                                                                                                     Flunky-1 ______________        Flunky-2_____________       


Lab Day 15 - Lab Final and check - in   April 29

II.  Lab Report: turn in lab reports the week following the completion of the lab.  This will often be two weeks after the start of the lab as often drying, final distillation, etc must be done the second lab day.  At the conclusion of every laboratory period the CEO will hand in a one page summary of your laboratory activity for that laboratory class.  It should be signed and dated by the entire group.  It is expected to be  three or four sentences to one half page in length.   You should also keep records of your work in your laboratory notebook.  This one page write‑up is not intended to replace your personal lab report, nor any records that you may wish to keep.


III.  Records of your laboratory work should be carefully recorded in a laboratory notebook.  Before performing an experiment you should (a) read carefully the discussion and directions for the experiment, fill out the prelab assignment and have procedures with amounts entered in your lab book.  For special experiments you will need to find your procedure in Organic Synthesis, a laboratory manual, or in the literature.  In your textbook, turn to the subject of the experiment and study the presentation there.  (b) Write up the experiment in your notebook using the outline below, omit observations and answers to questions that inherently cannot be supplied until the work is done.

You may use any notes written in your laboratory notebook for in class help on the lab final.


A.  Reporting a Special Laboratory Preparation (To be completed for all special syntheses.  You will need to model your own format for these experiments after Journal of the American Chemical Society or Journal of Organic Chemistry.  Let the lab notebook be the rough draft for the typed lab report; rough is acceptable and is expected. 

    1.  Title:                                           2.  Equations / Reaction to be used.

    3.  Materials:                                   4.  Procedure

    5.  Data:                                          6.  Calculations: (Always calculate the theoretical and percent yields.)

    7.  Discussion                                  8.  Disposal of waste materials and clean‑up

    9.  Copies of Spectra of products.


Procedure ‑ should state or outline briefly but clearly the working methods so that the experiment may be repeated from your laboratory notebook without reference to the Manual.  All statements should be impersonal.

Equation / Reaction - should include each chemical used and made, MW, bp / mp, mass used (gms and moles) density and volumes (where applicable).  These are often found tabulated under the appropriate part of the equation.

Materials ‑ should include each chemical used in the experiment with the grade, price and source recorded for each.

Data ‑ should include each product produced with weights, boiling points, and melting points for each recorded.

Calculations ‑ should include moles of reactants, theoretical moles of products, actual moles of product, and percent yields.  You will be given profit/loss sheets to turn in with each synthesis experiment.  You will probably want to attach a copy of this to your lab manual.

Discussions ‑ should include problems encountered in the experiments, possibly by‑products, etc., and answers to questions.



IV.  SALARY (Laboratory Grade):   Your grade in laboratory will be based on the following:


     9 laboratory preps X 50 pts each = 500 pts (the nine everyone does plus your special synthesis)

      1 LAB FINAL                                =  50 pts

                                                    Total    550 pts  Plus profit / loss points scaled to 20 % of the total grade.


You will be graded by this grade sheet on each special preparation(synthesis) you perform during the semester.  See below.






Chemical  Company                                                                                                    Product name                                          




Formal typed lab report (20)                       (CEO is responsible for this portion)    


Lab report in notebook (10)                         (Individuals are responsible for this portion)


Difficulty of preparation (20)                                                


Cost analysis (20)                            (CFO is responsible for this portion.) 


Participation (20)                             (Time log records this information and the CFO includes this in the cost analysis)

Sum (100)                             


Definitions of responsibilities.


CEO - Each student is responsible for being the Chief Executive Officer three times, twice for a required preparation and once for a special synthesis.  S(he) is to be prepared to answer questions, ascertain excuses, make decisions as to liability (whether to give credit to absent / tardy students), type and submit the formal company report (for which all are graded) and in conjunction with the CFO certify the cost analysis.


CFO - Each student is responsible for being the Chief Financial Officer three times, twice for a required preparation and once for a special synthesis.  S(he) is to find and tabulate all costs of materials, tabulate all time claims and penalize those claimants s as directed by the CEO.  In conjunction with the CEO they must agree upon a selling price and determine if there was a Profit or a Loss.


Flunky I (or 2)- Each student is responsible for being the Flunky I (or 2) three times, twice for a required preparation and once for a special synthesis.  This position=s responsibility is to ensure that the spectral properties of the product sufficiently match the literature spectral properties to legitimately claim production success.  S(he) accomplishes this match by running the IR spectra and other possible spectral properties as possible and submitting the appropriate data to the CEO for inclusion in his / her formal report.  To him / her belongs the call of success or failure.


                                                                 PROFIT and LOSS Statement


Rules:  Price for all chemicals that you need to purchase will come from the instructor using the catalog prices.  All prices are to be tabulated in the price per gram or price per milliliter.  Express the price in the fraction of a dollar as needed and carry enough significant figures such that multiplication will not produce round off error.  For example 1 L of hexane with a price of $6.93 / L would be listed at $ 0.00693 / mL.  If 100 ml was used then the cost would be $ 0.693.  In cost tabulation you are to get the single experiment cost per lab pair and then double it for the company.  If you throw out your reactant and start again you must charge yourself for the increased usage.   The final step is to multiply your chemical costs by 100.  This is to pretend that we are running a production scale system.  You only have to tabulate individually those chemicals that are the primary ingredients.  Those materials used as solvents, washing, neutralizing, drying agents are to be collectively purchased as 20 % of the cost of the other materials.  


You are to tabulate the time you spend in the scheduled lab working at ten dollars per hour as labor cost.  When you work your partners must also work (or at least you must charge for him / her) You may not check in / check out of lab during lab time.  If you work in the lab out side of class between 8-5, you are to charge yourself individually $ 10.00 / hour.  This might be time that you run spectra, take mp, check drying levels, check on refluxing apparatus, etc.  Any work done 5:00 - 7:00 pm afternoon lab  or 12:00 -2:00 pm morning lab costs $15.00 per hour overtime.   All work is charged in 15 min increments.  Less than 7 minutes rounded down and more than 7 minutes rounded up.


In selling your product you may sell it at the highest price you can find for any general grade chemical.  You must reference your selling price by attaching necessary hard copy and may only use sources available to everyone.  You may not use prices found for ASpectro@ grade, AUltra@, ACriterioquality@ grades etc.  You may utilize a price per mg, microgram, or nanogram and expand it to a price per gram.


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