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Case refers to the different forms that nouns and pronouns take to deliver information. The case of a noun or a pronoun communicates how that word relates to other words in a sentence. For example, I, me, and mine are three different cases of the singular first-person pronoun. (I wanted a small wedding, but my parents asked me to invite all their friends. Unlike my sister's wedding, mine was quite large.)

                English has three cases: subjective, objective, and possessive.

Personal pronouns are the most common type of pronouns. They have a full range of cases that show changes in person (first, second, and third person) and number (singular and plural).

Subjective Objective Possessive
Person sing.     plur. sing.     plur. sing.                                    plur.
First I        we me     us  my/mine 
Second you   you you   you your/yours                 your/yours 
Third he     they 
she   it
their/theirs                her/hers

A pronoun in the subjective case functions as a subject.
            We were going to be married.
                    [We is the subject.]
            John and I wanted an inexpensive band to play at our wedding.
                    [I is part of the compound subject John and I.]
            He and I found a one-person band we could afford.
                    [He and I are compound subjects.]

A pronoun in the objective case functions as a direct object, an indirect object, or the object of a preposition.
            We saw him perform in a public park.
                    [Him is the direct object.]
            We showed him our budget.
                    [Him is the indirect object.]
            He understood and shook hands with me.
                    [Me is the object of the preposition with.]

A pronoun in the possessive case indicates possession or ownership.
            The musician's contract was in the mail the next day.
                    [Musician's, a noun in the possessive case, indicates ownership.]
            Our signatures quickly went on the contract.
                    [Our, a pronoun in the possessive case, indicates possession.]