An abstract presents the essential information contained in a research report, an article, a book, or other document.
There are two types of abstracts:
The style of an abstract should be concise and clear, and the wording should be very direct.
1. Make the abstract easy to
a. Use familiar words. If unfamiliar words are necessary, define them. Avoid
b. Use active verbs rather than passive verbs whenever possible.
c. Vary sentence structure.
d. Use complete sentences. Don't omit articles or other small words to save space
2. Be concise.
a. Rephrase ideas from the article to condense the meaning.
b. c. Give information only once.
3. Be exact and unambiguous.
Use an organization scheme that will make the information clear to the
Usually, an abstract that puts the thesis first and then provides conclusions or
findings, and supporting data or details is most useful.
If you are writing an abstract for another
writer's article, remember that your job
is not to evaluate the article but simply to report what is in it.